Nepenthes sumatrana

Nepenthes sumatrana

Synonymy

Nepenthes sumatrana (Miq.) Beck in Wiener Ill. Gart.-Zeitung 20: 149. 1895 sec. Clarke 2001
  • Nepenthes boschiana var. sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(1): 1074. 1858 syn. sec. Clarke 2001
  • Nepenthes maxima var. sumatrana (Miq.) Becc., Malesia 3: 3. 1886 syn. sec. Clarke 2001
    • Unknown type category: Sumatra, Sibolga, alt. 0 m, Feb 1856, Teijsmann 535 (BO).
    • Unknown type category: Sumatra, Sibolga, alt. 0 m, Feb 1856, Teijsmann 535 (L).
    • Unknown type category: Sumatra, Sibolga, alt. 0 m, Feb 1856, Teijsmann 535 (U).
  • Nepenthes spinosa Tamin & M. Hotta, Tamin & M. Hotta - in M.Hotta, Divers. & Dynam. Pl. Life Sumatra. 1986: 103, f. 7 & 8, nom. nud., syn. sec. Clarke 2001

Description

Climbing or scrambling branched stem up to 18 m long.
The lamina is oblong or lanceolate, occasionally ovate in young plants, up to 55 cm long and 9 cm wide. The apex of the leaf is acute, obtuse, rounded or emarginate, and the base is attenuate, petiolate and clasps the stem, sometimes becoming decurrent. The petiole is narrowly winged and up to 8 cm long. The lamina is green, the tendril and midrib are yellow, green or reddish in strong sunlight. The stem is yellow, green or grey. Most parts of mature plants are sparsely covered with grey or brown hairs. The margins of the leaves are fringed with short, reddish brown hairs. The hairs readily detach, and mature plants may sometimes appear predominantly glabrous.
Nepenthes sumatrana is unusual among Nepenthes in that it produces two types of lower pitchers. Seedlings and juvenile plants first produce pitchers that are wholly ovate, or ovate in the bottom half and cylindrical above. These traps are up to 14 cm tall and 6 cm wide, and have broad wings up to 10 mm wide, fringed with narrow filaments up to 6 mm long. The peristome is loosely cylindrical, up to 8 mm wide, and lined with fine ribs up to 0.3 mm high, spaced up to 0.3 mm apart. The front of the peristome is typically raised to form a short ridge. The peristome may be of a constant width around the pitcher opening, or is expanded at the sides and back. The lid is orbicular or ovate, with a cordate base, lacks an appendage, and often has wavy margins. The spur is unbranched and up to 15 mm long.
As plants develop, they soon produce a vine and upper pitchers. If offshoots and basal rosettes develop from the rootstock, they bear the second type of lower pitcher. These are up to 20 cm tall and 10 cm wide, and are ovate or cylindrical, with a distinct hip and slight constriction just below the peristome. Wings up to 12 mm wide, fringed with filaments up to 10 mm long, run down the front of the pitchers. The peristome is up to 14 mm wide, but in all other respects, these pitchers are consistent with the lower pitchers found on young plants.
The colouration of both types of lower pitcher is very variable. The exterior may be yellow, orange, flesh pink, bright pink or red, sometimes mottled with blotches of dark red or purple. The interior is creamy white or yellow, often punctuated by large, angular, dark red or purple blotches. The peristome is yellow, orange or red, striped with bands of dark red or purple. The lid is the same colour as the exterior of the pitcher, but often has a lighter lower surface.
The upper pitchers are wholly infundibular, up to 30 cm tall and 15 cm wide. The shape, size and relative proportions of the traps vary greatly, and some are evenly funnel shaped whilst others are elongated. The base of the pitcher curves abruptly backwards, especially where it emerges from the tendril. The pitcher usually narrows abruptly just below the peristome, forming a distinct hip. The wings are reduced to narrow ridges. The peristome is cylindrical, up to 10 mm wide, and is lined with fine ribs up to 0.3 mm high, spaced up to 0.3 mm apart. The peristome is often abruptly raised at the front of the pitcher opening to form a short, broad ridge. All other parts are similar to the lower pitchers. Nectar is secreted profusely on the lower surface of the lid, and upper pitchers may have a sweet fragrance.
The exterior of the upper pitchers may be yellow, orange, or red. The interior is creamy white, light yellow or orange, often blotched with dark red or purple. The peristome is yellow, green, orange, red or purple, and often striped with light yellow, light green or bright red.
The inflorescence is a raceme, to 90 cm long. The peduncle is up to 20 cm long and the rachis to 70 cm long. Female inflorescences have a longer peduncle, to 30 cm, and a shorter rachis, usually less than 40 cm long. Flowers are borne on 1- or 2-flowered partial peduncles 5-8 mm long, sometimes with a bract, the pedicels up to 8 mm long. Tepals are ovate and up to 6 mm long. Fruits are up to 56 mm long and the seeds to 26 mm long.A

Notes

Jebb & Cheek (1997) and Cheek & Jebb (2001) included N. longifolia Nerz & Wistuba in this species, but Clarke 2001 points to a number of differences that justify to maintain them as separate species. B

Distribution (General)

Indonesia, North and West SumatraA

Habitat

In humid, undisturbed lowland dipterocarp forest on steep cliffsides and the slopes of hills and ridges, amidst shrubs and trees in dappled shade.A

Bibliography

A. McPherson, S. R. 2009: Pitcher Plants of the Old World 2
B. Clarke, C.M. 2001: Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia

Specimens

CountryDateCollector + collecting numberHerbariaTypeScanDerivatives
1856-02-��Teijsmann 535BO, L, U
Citation: Sumatra, Sibolga, alt. 0 m, Feb 1856, Teijsmann 535.

Specimen summary: BO
Unknown type category of Nepenthes boschiana var. sumatrana Miq. Nepenthes sumatrana (Miq.) Beck Nepenthes maxima var. sumatrana (Miq.) Becc.

Specimen summary: L
Unknown type category of Nepenthes boschiana var. sumatrana Miq. Nepenthes sumatrana (Miq.) Beck Nepenthes maxima var. sumatrana (Miq.) Becc.

Specimen summary: U
Unknown type category of Nepenthes boschiana var. sumatrana Miq. Nepenthes sumatrana (Miq.) Beck Nepenthes maxima var. sumatrana (Miq.) Becc.