Nepenthes fusca

Nepenthes fusca

Synonymy

Nepenthes fusca Danser in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 9: 288, f. 6. 1928 sec. Cheek & Jebb 2001
    • Lectotype: Borneo, E Kalimantan, G. Kemoel (= G. Kongkemul), alt. 1500 m, 12 Nov 1925, Endert 3955 (BO).
    • Isotype: Borneo, E Kalimantan, G. Kemoel (= G. Kongkemul), alt. 1500 m, 12 Nov 1925, Endert 3955 (BO).
    • Isotype: Borneo, E Kalimantan, G. Kemoel (= G. Kongkemul), alt. 1500 m, 12 Nov 1925, Endert 3955 (K).
    • Isotype: Borneo, E Kalimantan, G. Kemoel (= G. Kongkemul), alt. 1500 m, 12 Nov 1925, Endert 3955 (L).
  • =Nepenthes curtisii subsp. zakriana J.H.Adam & Wilcock in Sarawak Mus. J. 50: 151 (f. XXII a & b). 1998 syn. sec. Cheek & Jebb 2001
  • Nepenthes zakriana (J.H.Adam & Wilcock) J.H.Adam & Hafiza in Int. J. Bot. 2(4): 434 (-435, fig. 3, 4). 2006 syn. sec. Cheek & Jebb 2001
    • Isotype: Borneo, Sabah, Mt Kinabalu, Mamut, alt. 1100 m, 21 Jan 1988, J. Adam, Adam & Aliosman 2431 (ABD).
    • Holotype: Borneo, Sabah, Mt Kinabalu, Mamut, alt. 1100 m, 21 Jan 1988, J. Adam, Adam & Aliosman 2431 (UKMS).
  • Nepenthes fusca subsp. kostermansiana J.H.Adam & Wilcock ex Jebb & Cheek in Blumea 42(1). 1997, nom. nud., syn. sec. Cheek & Jebb 20011
    • Isotype: Borneo, E Kalimantan, Berau, Mt Njapa, Kelai River, alt. 1000 m, 25 Oct 1963, Kostermans 21495 (K).
    • Holotype: Borneo, E Kalimantan, Berau, Mt Njapa, Kelai River, alt. 1000 m, 25 Oct 1963, Kostermans 21495 (L).
  • 1.  65

Other sources

Phillipps, A. & Lamb, A.L. 1988: – Nature Malaysiana 13(4): 24
Jebb, M.H.P. & Cheek, M.R. 1997: A skeletal revision of Nepenthes. – Blumea 42(1): 1-106: 41
Kurata, S. 1976: Nepenthes of Mt Kinabalu, Sabah: 48, t. 13
Danser, B.H. 1996 – In: Phillipps, A. & Lamb, A.L., Pitcher Plants of Borneo: 87, f. 48
Clarke, C.M. 1997: Nepenthes of Borneo: 87, f. 57 & 58

Description

Epiphytic shrub or climber in canopy, less usually terrestrial, stems to 3 m tall. Stems of rosettes terete, 0.8 mm diam., internodes 1 cm long; short stems terete, c. 4 mm diam., internodes 1-2 cm long; tall stems terete or 2-angled or 2-winged, 3-6(-10) mm diam., wings up to 3 mm wide, internodes 3-8.5(-12) cm long, with axillary buds 2-7 by 1.5 mm, 5-15 mm above the axil. Leaves petiolate, coriaceous; rosette leaves narrowly to broadly oblong-elliptic, 10-13.5 by 6-8.2 cm, apex obtuse to truncate, not peltate, base truncate to obtuse; leaves of short stems obovate or elliptic, 9-12.5 by 3.5-5 cm, apex obtuse, base attenuate-decurrent; petiole winged, 3-5 cm long, 7 mm wide including the wings, base sheathing and clasping the stem for 3/4 its circumference; leaves of long stems obovate, oblong-elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, 6-13(-20) by 2.5-5(-6.5) cm, apex obtuse, rounded, emarginate or acute, base decurrent-attenuate, truncate, rounded or obtuse; petiole canaliculate, rarely winged, 2-6 cm long, 0.4 cm wide, clasping the petiole for 1/3-1/2 its circumference, sometimes decurrent to the node below as an arcuate or straight ridge or wing. Longitudinal nerves 2 or 3 on each side of the midrib in the outer 1/3, not very conspicuous. Pennate nerves patent, fairly numerous, reaching the longitudinal nerves, inconspicuous. Lower pitchers subcylindrical, lower half slightly ellipsoid, upper half slightly narrower, cylindrical, 10-13 by 2-3 cm, with two fringed wings 3-4 mm wide, fringed elements 4-8 mm long, 3-4 mm apart; mouth oblique, concave, ovate, rising at the rear to a short, tapered column, peristome cylindrical to flattened, 3 mm wide, ribs conspicuous, 0.2-0.5 mm apart, outer edge entire, inner edge lacking teeth; lid triangular-lanceolate, 2.7-3.2 by 1.7-1.8 cm, margin sinuate, usually with a basal and apical appendage, nectar glands as in the upper pitchers; spur filiform, 5 by 0.3 mm, apex acute. Upper pitchers subcylindrical to broadly infundibuliform, sometimes abruptly constricted at the mouth, 11-21.5(-30) by 2.5-7(-9) cm, without fringed wings, but with two ridges c. 1 mm wide; mouth ovate, oblique, strongly concave or L-shaped in side profile, the rear part held vertically, rarely slightly reflexed, to form an acute column up to 4 cm high; peristome cylindrical, 2-4 mm wide, or, especially in the column area, flattened, 4-11 (-21) mm wide, ribs as in lower pitchers, outer edge entire, or sinuate with 1-4 shallow lobes on each side, inner edge with inconspicuous, slightly curved teeth 0.3 mm long, with conspicuous nectar glands between them; lid raised from the horizontal, to erect, narrowly triangular-lanceolate, 2.5-5(-7) by 1-3 cm, apex rounded to obtuse, base truncate or cordate, margin involute and sinuate, lower surface with apical appendage filiform, 0-7 mm long, exserted, basal appendage semicircular, laterally flattened, 3-6 by 5-10 mm on ridge up to 10 mm high at the column apex, tapering towards the lid apex, nectar glands narrowly elliptic, 1-1.2 by 0.3 mm along the midrib keel, otherwise circular, thinly bordered, 0.2-0.5 mm diam., densely scattered or sometimes largely absent; spur 10-20 mm long, flattened, apex rounded. Male inflorescence 12.5-24 by 2.5-3.5 cm; peduncle 4.75-6(-12) cm long, 1.5-3.5 mm diam. at base; partial peduncles 2-flowered, (20-)50, 1.5-2(-5) mm long; bracts absent; pedicels (6-)8-11 mm long; tepals elliptic, 3.5-4 by 1.5-2 mm; androphore (1.5-)3-4 mm long; anther head 1-1.2 by 1.2-1.25 mm. Infructescence 28-44 by 6-9 cm, bearing 12-20(-60) fruits; peduncle 10-24 cm long, 3-5 mm diam. at base. Fruits with valves 18-22(-39) by 3-3.2 mm. Seeds filiform, 9.5-11.5(-20) by 0.2-0.4 mm. Indumentum of stems fairly densely and roughly pubescent with simple or branched, erect to forward- directed red brown to black hairs 0.3-0.5 mm long. Colour of the stems dark brown hairy, lower pitchers purplish black, lightly splashed with cream; upper pitchers pale green, usually lightly splashed at the top with red; flowers brown.A

Notes

Nepenthes fusca is immediately distinguished from the closely related Bornean species N. faizaliana, N. pilosa, N. stenophylla, and N. veitchii by the lids of the upper pitchers which are narrowly triangular and have involute margins. In lower and mid-pitchers the lids are more ovate, and often flat, and it is only in the upper pitchers that the species-specific characters are constantly found. The inflorescence of this species is also smaller and more delicate than the foregoing species. Danser in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III 9 (1928) 288 described N. fusca from the type specimen alone, and although upper pitchers are present on the two duplicates at Bogor, none have lids. Fortunately the isotypes at K and L have upper pitchers with the characteristic lid.
The glandular crest-like appendage at the base of the lid is always developed in this species, but the apical appendage may or may not be developed, and then usually only in upper pitchers. Whilst it was once argued that the presence of an apical appendage characterises N. maxima, we view that species as a closely related taxon distinguished from N. fusca by a broadly ovate lid. Nepenthes maxima occurs from Sulawesi to New Guinea, whilst N. fusca is restricted to Borneo.
Kostermans 21495 (K, L) represents an extreme variant of N. fusca, approaching N. eymae in appearance. We also include in N. fusca the recently described N. curtisii subsp. zakriana on the basis of the photographs that accompany the protologue (N. curtisii is a synonym of N. maxima).
Nepenthes fusca subsp. apoensis J.H.Adam & Wilcock, ined., based on Chai 35939, belongs to N. stenophylla by virtue of its sheathing leaf bases, rounded lids and indumentum.A

Distribution (General)

Borneo: Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei, and Kalimantan.A

Habitat

Mossy forest, ridge tops; 800-1500(-2500) m.A

Bibliography

A. Cheek, M.R. & Jebb, M.H.P. 2001: Flora Malesiana - Nepenthaceae, Series I, Volume 15

Specimens

CountryDateCollector + collecting numberHerbariaTypeScanDerivatives
1963-10-25Kostermans 21495K, L
Citation: Borneo, E Kalimantan, Berau, Mt Njapa, Kelai River, alt. 1000 m, 25 Oct 1963, Kostermans 21495.

Specimen summary: K
Isotype of Nepenthes fusca subsp. kostermansiana J.H.Adam & Wilcock ex Jebb & Cheek

Specimen summary: L
Holotype of Nepenthes fusca subsp. kostermansiana J.H.Adam & Wilcock ex Jebb & Cheek

1925-11-12Endert 3955BO(2), K, L
Citation: Borneo, E Kalimantan, G. Kemoel (= G. Kongkemul), alt. 1500 m, 12 Nov 1925, Endert 3955.

Specimen summary: BO
Lectotype of Nepenthes fusca Danser

Specimen summary: K
Isotype of Nepenthes fusca Danser

Specimen summary: L
Isotype of Nepenthes fusca Danser

1988-01-21Adam, J. H., Adam & Aliosman 2431ABD, UKMS
Citation: Borneo, Sabah, Mt Kinabalu, Mamut, alt. 1100 m, 21 Jan 1988, J. Adam, Adam & Aliosman 2431.

Specimen summary: ABD
Isotype of Nepenthes curtisii subsp. zakriana J.H.Adam & Wilcock

Specimen summary: UKMS
Holotype of Nepenthes curtisii subsp. zakriana J.H.Adam & Wilcock