Nepenthes candalaga

Nepenthes candalaga

Synonymy

Nepenthes candalaga Lagunday & V.B.Amoroso in Phytotaxa 554(3): 286. 2022 sec. ???
    • Isotype: Philippines, Mindanao: Davao de Oro, Maragusan Municipality, Mount Candalaga, Tropical Upper Montane Rainforest, 3 May 2021, N. Lagunday s.n. (CMUH)
    • Holotype: Philippines, Mindanao: Davao de Oro, Maragusan Municipality, Mount Candalaga, Tropical Upper Montane Rainforest, 3 May 2021, N. Lagunday s.n. (PNH)

Description

Terrestrial, scrambling on neighboring plants for support; Climbing stem terete, becoming reddish depending on sunlight exposure up to 8 m long and up to 5 mm in diameter, internodes are up to 5.3 cm, axillary buds conspicuous; leaves up to 14.5 cm long × 2.3–2.6 cm wide, more or less linear; petioles winged, reddish depending on sunlight exposure, up to 2.5 cm long × 7 mm wide; leaf base acuminate, leaf apex acute, margin irregularly recurved, with 3 longitudinal nerves running parallel with the midvein; pennate nerves at 30–60° from the midrib, numerous, moderately conspicuous; midrib reddish-brown and contrasting with green lamina. Upper pitcher widest just below the peristome, bottom half is slightly inflated becoming infundibular tapering toward the tendril, cylindrical mid forming a hip becoming infundibular towards the ovate opening; 10–15 cm long and up to 4 cm wide (widest point), waxy zone up to 56% of the pitcher length with ca. 0.2 × 0.2(–0.3) wax gland, digestive zone up to 44% of the pitcher length with ca. 0.4 × 0.5 mm digestive glands; banner shaped wings just below the peristome (1/6 of the trap anterior), up to 6 mm long × 5 mm wide, fringe filaments 2–3, 4.0–4.7 mm long and 1–2 mm apart; mouth ovate tapering posteriorly to form a distinct vertically/slightly anteriorly inclined neck; peristome slightly flattened up to 3 mm wide, densely lined with ribs 0.5‒0.8 mm apart having small conspicuous short teeth-like projections with proximally sunken nectar glands in the semilunar depressions between ribs with canals emptying into the inner pitcher wall; spur is filiform, pubescent, unbranched, 1.0–1.1 cm long and up to 0.5 mm in diameter; lid orbicular, 2.3–3.7 cm long × 2.7–4.2 cm wide, apex notched, base cordate, lid appendage inverted fin-shaped, apex pointed towards the peristome, 3.0–3.5 mm at the base up to 3 mm long, nectar glands that are 0.1 × 0.1 mm are evenly distributed in the lower lid and appendage; tendrils coiling, up to 27 cm long and up to 5 mm in diameter. Color of living plants is much suffused with red depending on sunlight exposure. Peristome of upper pitchers greenish-yellow with narrow bands of maroon red. Pitchers marbled with red flecks towards mouth, becoming greenish at base. Pitcher interiors are creamy-yellow. Lid adaxial marbled red throughout depending on sunlight exposure. Lower/intermediate pitcher leaves were not observed during the time of collection. The female inflorescence is a panicle, pubescent except for the scape which is 16.5‒24.5 cm long scape up to 2–4 mm in diameter and an additional of up to 10 cm rachis. The partial peduncles are two 2-flowered, 6‒7 mm long and 1 mm in diameter. The pedicels are up to 9 mm long and up to 1 mm in diameter bearing tetramerous narrow ovate petals that are 6‒7 mm long and 3.5‒4.0 mm wide with huge round (ca. 3 × 3 mm) to elongated (ca. 1.25‒2.50 × 1‒3 mm) nectar glands becoming smaller towards the tepal apex in the upper surface. The capsule bearing the seeds are 2.2‒3.2 cm long and ca. 5 mm wide. The seeds have filiform extensions that are unequal in length ranging from 5.5‒7.0 mm on either sides, seed body is 1‒2 mm × 0.8‒1.0 mm, total seed length is 1.2‒1.6 cm long. Male inflorescence were not observed during the time of collection.

Conservation

Nepenthes candalaga is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR] based on the criterion B1ab(i) of IUCN (2022). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is less than 10 km2 . The species suffers the habitat loss because of the deforestation and typhoons as part of the mountain was significantly damaged by Typhoon Pablo in 2012. The species is known only from the Mt. Candalaga and is likely to be endemic to the mountain, which faces threats of deforestation and habitat loss without legislative protectionA

Etymology

The specific epithet is a noun apposition. It signals the type locality of the species, Mt. Candalaga in Maragusan, Davao de Oro, eastern Mindanao, Philippines

Bibliography

A. Lagunday, N. E., De la Rosa, S., Cleofei, C. M. B., Patano jr., R., Coritico, F. & Amoroso, V.B. 2022: Nepenthes candalaga (Nepenthaceae), a new species from eastern Mindanao, Philippines. – Phytotaxa 554(3): 285-292

Specimens

CountryDateCollector + collecting numberHerbariaTypeScanDerivatives
Philippines2021-05-03Lagunday, N. E. s.n.CMUH, PNH
Citation: Philippines, Mindanao: Davao de Oro, Maragusan Municipality, Mount Candalaga, Tropical Upper Montane Rainforest, 3 May 2021, N. Lagunday s.n.

Specimen summary: CMUH
Isotype of Nepenthes candalaga Lagunday & V.B.Amoroso

Specimen summary: PNH
Holotype of Nepenthes candalaga Lagunday & V.B.Amoroso