Nepenthes halmahera

Nepenthes halmahera

Synonymy

Nepenthes halmahera Cheek in Blumea 59(3): 217 (216-219, fig. 1). 2015 [Named for the island of Halmahera on which it occurs, as a noun in apposition.B]. sec. Cheek 2015
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (A); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (BISH); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (BO); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (CAL); male infl.
    • Holotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (K); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (L); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (LAE); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (NSW); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (P); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (PNH); male infl.
    • Isotype (designated by Cheek, M. R. 20151): Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718 (SING); male infl.
  • 1. Cheek, M. R. 2015: Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) of Halmahera, Indonesia. – Blumea 59(3): 215-225

Description

Terrestrial climber, 2 – 5 m tall. Stems terete. Rosette shoots not seen. Short shoots (Mahroji & Gushilman 211) 6 –7 mm diam, internodes c. 1.5 cm long, densely covered in red depressed- globose glands 0.05 mm diam, c. 5 –10 per mm2, hairs absent. Climbing stems 3 – 4(– 6) mm diam, internodes 1– 5.5(– 9) cm long, axillary buds not conspicuous, indumentum of sessile depressed-globose glands c. 0.03 mm diam mixed with very sparse simple golden-brown hairs 0.5 mm long, or hairs ab- sent. Leaves of short shoots elliptic to lanceolate, 16.5 – 22.5 by 4.3 – 6.2 cm, apex acute, base decurrent. Longitudinal nerves 6 –7 pairs, evenly scattered, inconspicuous, most visible on adaxial surface. Pennate nerves inconspicuous; margin glabrous or with sparse brown simple hairs 0.3 – 0.4 mm long, upper and lower surfaces entirely glabrous; or with appressed sparse hairs 0.5 – 0.75 mm long near the midrib of lower surface. Petiole canaliculate-winged, 2.7– 3.5 cm long, 0.5 cm deep, shortly sheathing the stem and clasping the stem its entire circumference. Leaves of climbing stems elliptic, 8 –15(–17) by 1.5 – 3.5(– 4.8) cm, apex acute, base decurrent. Longitudinal nerves 5 – 8 pairs, conspicuous only on younger leaves. Pennate nerves numerous, patent. Indumentum absent from upper and lower surfaces, except for sessile depressed- globose glands and for the distal midrib with a few short simple hairs, sometimes the lower midrib also with simple golden- brown hairs; margin glabrous or with sparse simple patent hairs c. 0.5 mm long. Petiole canaliculate-winged, 1.5 – 3.4 by 0.3 cm, base clasping the stem for the 2 /3s to the entire circumference, dilating abruptly as patent wings 2 mm wide around the stem, not or shortly decurrent by 0 – 5 mm, the margin with sparse patent simple hairs. Tendril 9 –10 cm long. Lower pitcher (short shoots) ellipsoid-cylindric, c. 11 by 3.6 cm, the ellipsoid base gradually constricting into the more slender cylindric upper portion, 2.2 cm wide at the mouth; fringed wings c. 1.2 cm apart, 0.7 cm wide at the pitcher base, fringed elements 1.5 – 2 mm long, 0.2 –1.1 mm apart; outer surface of pitcher 10 – 20 % covered in inconspicuous simple pale brown hairs 0.5 mm long, mixed with dense depressed-globose red glands 0.05 mm diam, 15 – 20 per mm2; mouth narrowly ovate, concave, strongly oblique, inner surface waxy, greenish white; peristome subcylindric, 1.5 – 2 mm wide, ribs 0.8 mm apart, weakly developed and differentiated, outer edge entire, inner edge with teeth inconspicuous, mainly concealed, 0.5 mm long, curved; column area not visible (due to specimen mounting); lid obovate-elliptic, c. 3 by 2.4 cm, apex rounded, base abruptly and inconspicuously cordate, upper surface with indumentum as outer pitcher, hairs short overall, but dense, longer, white and matted near the base; lower surface not visible (due to specimen mounting); spur bifurcate, stout, 1.5 mm wide at base, 2 mm long, branches 1 mm long, apices acute, indumentum as on lid base. Upper pitchers (climbing stems), green, ovoid-cylindric (5.8 –)8.2 –10.5(–11) by (2.2 –)2.4 – 3.3(– 3.9) cm, the basal ovoid portion extending (2.3 –)3.2 – 4.7(– 5) cm from the pitcher base, the ‘hip’ weakly developed, the upper cylindrical portion gradually contracting to the narrowest part 1.4 – 2.2(– 2.7) cm wide, just above the midpoint of the pitcher, then slightly dilating to (1.3 –)1.4 – 2.7(– 3) cm wide just below the peristome; wings reduced to ridges < 1 mm wide, 0.8 –1 cm apart; indumentum of outer surface 5 –10 % covered with golden-brown appressed acute simple hairs, 0.25(– 0.5) mm long, mixed with sessile red depressed-globose glands 0.03 mm diam; mouth ovate, concave, oblique, inner surface pale glaucous waxy greenish white, with red spots; column not developed; peristome cylin- drical-flattened in transverse section (1–)1.5 – 2.5(– 3.0) mm wide; ridges 0.3 – 0.35 mm apart, developed as low, blade-like wings 0.25 mm deep on the outer surface, ribs not prominent on the inner surface; the outer edge lacking lobes or with one ill-defined lobe, inner edge usually with teeth inconspicuous, oc- casionally (e.g. when distorted by pressing) with 0.1– 0.15 mm long curved teeth visible; lid ovate-elliptic (1.2 –)1.8 – 2.6(– 2.7) by 1.4 – 2(– 2.4) cm, apex rounded, base rounded and abruptly and shallowly cordate, upper surface with indumentum as outer pitcher, lower surface without appendages; nectar glands 25–30, scattered in the centre, especially along the base of the midline where linear-elliptic, otherwise elliptic or orbicular, 0.75 by 0.5 mm, thickly bordered, the borders glossy yellow, slightly raised, central aperture orbicular, 0.25 – 0.3 mm diam, dark brown; marginal 1–2 mm of lid lacking nectar glands, but with dense ses- sile red depressed-globose glands (10 –15 per mm2), becoming rapidly less dense away from the margin, and almost absent in the centre of the lid; marginal 0.5 mm with dense minute, bushy, branched hairs 0.07– 0.08 mm long. Spur oblong, 1–1.2 by 1 mm, strongly dorsiventrally flattened and often recurved, apex rounded. Inflorescences terminal on main axis or (Bangun et al. 267, 637, 812, Phillipson et al. 6450, all MO) on short axillary spur shoots. Male inflorescences at least 2 – 3 on each flowering stem, separated from each other by 2 – 6 nodes, 9.8 –19 by (1.8 –)2 – 2.5(– 3) cm, peduncle (1.7–)3 – 4.7(– 5.5) cm long, (0.1–)0.15 cm diam at base; partial-peduncles 30 –74, 3 – 4(– 5)-flowered in the proximal 1/2 to 2 /3s, the distal part 2-flowered; bract filiform, patent (0.5 –)1– 2 mm long, rarely absent, inserted variably between base and apex; partial- peduncles 1– 5 mm long; partial-rhachis 0 – 2 mm long; pedi- cels 2.5 – 5(– 6) mm long; indumentum of appressed simple, golden-brown hairs 0.15 – 0.25(–1) mm long, mixed with ses- sile depressed-globose red glands 0.03 mm diam, covering c. 80 % of the peduncle when young, but at length glabrescent, rhachis and partial-peduncles 50 – 60 %, covered in hairs up to 0.5 mm long. Perianth tepals 4, green, drying brown, proximal 1/10th connate, elliptic-oblong, c. 2 by 1.75 mm, upper surface with 10 –15 nectar glands, confined to the proximal 1/ 3 to 1/2, orbicular to elliptic, minute, 0.02 – 0.03 mm long, sparse, separated by c. 0.25 mm, in dried material situated at apex of irregular convexities; distal part of tepal glabrous; margin with a fringe of patent hairs, lower surface 90 % covered by appressed simple golden hairs 0.1– 0.2 mm long; androphore 5 winged, drying black, 2 mm long, glabrous or with 1– 2 hairs; anther head subglobose, c. 1 by 1.1 mm, white; anthers 6, one apical, the remainder uniseriate. Female inflorescence as the male 12 –16 by 2.8 – 4.5 cm, peduncle 4 – 6 by 0.15 – 0.2 cm, partial-peduncles (3 –)4 – 5.5 mm long, 30 – 58, proximal half 2 – 3-flowered, distal half 1– 2-flowered; pedicels 3 – 5 mm long; tepals oblong 3 by 1.5 mm; ovary narrowly ovoid 4 – 5 by 1.5 mm, stigmas 3 – 4, bilobed, apices rounded. Infructescence 16 – 26 by 5 cm, peduncle 8 –11 by 0.25 cm; fruits fusiform 1.5 by 0.3 – 0.4 cm. Seeds filiform, 0.5 by 0.025 mm, pale yellow, central body dentate.A

Conservation

Using the precautionary principle, this species is here assessed as Critically Endangered B2ab(iii) according to the Categories and Criterion of IUCN (2012). This is because although seven sites and at least that number of mature individuals are known for N. halmahera, resulting in an ‘area of occupancy’ (as defined in IUCN 2012) of 32 km² using the preferred IUCN standard of 4 km² grid cells, they all appear to be within a single ‘threat-based’ location in the sense of IUCN (2012). A

Distribution (General)

Indonesia, North Maluku, Halmahera, Weda Bay Nickel Project.A

Habitat

Open areas in lowland (rarely lower montane) forest on ultramafic substrate; 10 – 500(–760) m altitude.A

Bibliography

A. Cheek, M. R. 2015: Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) of Halmahera, Indonesia. – Blumea 59(3): 215-225

Specimens

CountryDateCollector + collecting numberHerbariaTypeScanDerivatives
Indonesia1949-08-25De Haan 1718A, BISH, BO, CAL, K, L, LAE, NSW, P, PNH, SING
Citation: Indonesia, N Maluku Province, Halmahera, Weda, Nucifera, 25 Aug 1949, De Haan 1718; male infl.

Specimen summary: A
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: BISH
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: BO
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: CAL
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: K
Holotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: L
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: LAE
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: NSW
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: P
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: PNH
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek

Specimen summary: SING
Isotype of Nepenthes halmahera Cheek