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Rhabdodendraceae Prance in Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 38. 1968 sec. APG IV [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group] 20161 wfo-7000000519
      Nametype: Rhabdodendron Gilg & Pilg.
  • 1. APG IV [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group] 2016: APG IV: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. – Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1-20. 10.1111/boj.12385


A monogeneric family comprising three species distributed in tropical South America, in the Guyanas, the Amazonian region and northeastern Brazil (Prance 2003). The family has had a complicated taxonomic history. Traditionally, species which are now placed in Rhabdodendron Gilg & Pilg. were included in different families of Rutales, in the family Chrysobalanaceae (as the genus Lecostemon DC.) (Bentham 1853) or in Rutaceae (Gilg & Pilger 1905; Huber 1909; Takhtajan 1980). In other systems (e.g. Cronquist 1981), Rhabdodendron was placed within Rosales (for a detailed taxonomic history until the seventies see Prance 1972). Based on morphological, palynological and anatomical characters, Prance (1972) considered Rhabdodendron in its own family, and suggested for the first time some affinities with Caryophyllales, specifically with Phytolaccaceae. Later on, the early molecular phylogenetic study of Fay & al. (1997) confirmed the affinities of Rhabdodendraceae with Caryophyllales. Since then, the position of the family within the order was also confirmed by subsequent studies (e. g. Cuénoud & al. 2002; Hilu & al. 2003; Schäferhoff & al. 2010; Brockington & al. 2009, 2011; Qiu & al. 2010; Soltis & al. 2011); although there are several hypothesis about its internal position.A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,P


A. Bentham, G. 1853: Notes on two little-known genera connected with the South American flora. – Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany 5: 289-296
B. Brockington, S. F., Alexandre, R., Ramdial, J., Moore, M. J., Crawley, S., Dhingra, A., Hilu, K., Douglas, E. S. & Soltis, P.S. 2009: Phylogeny of the Caryophyllales sensu lato: Revisiting hypotheses on pollination biology and perianth differentiation in the core Caryophyllales. – International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(5): 627–643. https://doi.org/10.1086/597785
C. Brockington, S. F., Walker, R. H., Glover, R. H., Soltis, P.S. & Soltis, D.E. 2011: Complex pigment evolution in the Caryophyllales. – New Phytologist 190: 854 – 864. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03687.x%7c
D. Cronquist, A.J. 1981: An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. – New York: Columbia University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/2806386
E. Cuénoud, P. & al. 2002: Molecular phylogenetics of Caryophyllales based on nuclear 18S rDNA and plastid rbcL, atpB, and matK DNA sequences. – American Journal of Botany 89(1): 132-144. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.89.1.132
F. Fay, M., Cameron, K. M., Prance, G. T., Lledó, M. D. & Chase, M. W. 1997: Familial relationships of Rhabdodendron (Rhabdodendraceae): plastid rbcL sequences indicate a caryophyllid placement. – Kew Bulletin 52: 923 – 932. https://doi.org/10.2307/4117819
G. Gilg, E. & Pilger, R. 1905: Rutaceae. – Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins für die Provinz Brandenburg 47: 152-154
H. Hernández-Ledesma, P., Berendsohn, W. G., Borsch, T., von Mering, S., Akhani, H., Arias, S., Castañeda-Noa, I., Eggli, U., Eriksson, R., Flores-Olvera, H., Fuentes-Bazán, S., Kadereit, G., Klak, C., Korotkova, N., Nyffeler, R., Ocampo, G. & Ochoterena, H. 2015: A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. – Willdenowia 45(3): 281-383. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.45.45301
I. Hilu, K., Müller, K. F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Savolainen, V., Chase, M. W., Powell, M. P., Lawrence, Alice, Evans, R. C., Sauquet, H., Neinhuis, C., Slotta, T., Rohwer, J. G., Campbell, C. S. & Chatrou, L. 2003: Angiosperm phylogeny based on matK sequence information. – American Journal of Botany 90: 1758 – 1776. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.90.12.1758
J. Huber, J. 1909: Rhabdodendron. Materiaes para a flora amazonica, VII, Plantae Duckeanae austro-guyanenses. – Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi 5: 424-431
K. Prance, G. T. 2003: Rhabdodendraceae, 339 – 341. – In: Kubitzki, K. & Bayer, C. (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants 5. – Berlin, Heidelberg & New York: Springer
L. Prance, G.T. 1972: Rhabdodendraceae. – Flora Neotropica 11: 1-22
M. Qiu, Y.-L., Li, L., Wang, B., Xue, J.-Y., Hendry, T.A., Li, R.-Q., Brown, J.W., Liu, Y., Hudson, G.T. & Chen, Z.-D. 2010: Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from sequences of four mitochondrial genes. – Journal of Systematics and Evolution 48(6): 391-425. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2010.00097.x
N. Schäferhoff, B., Müller, K.F. & Borsch, T. 2010: Caryophyllales phylogenetics: disentangling Phytolaccaceae and Molluginaceae and description of Microteaceae as a new isolated family. – Willdenowia 39: 209-228. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.39.39201
O. Soltis, D.E., Smith, S.A., Cellinese, N., Wurdack, K.J., Tank, D.C., Brockington, S.F., Refulio-Rodriguez, N.F., Walker, J.B., Moore, M.J., Carlsward, B.S., Bell, C.D., Latvis, M., Crawley, S., Black, C., Diouf, D., Xi, Z., Rushworth, C.A., Gitzendanner, M.A., Sytsma, K.J., Qiu, Y.-l., Hilu, K.W., Davis, C.C., Sanderson, M.J., Beaman, R.S., Olmstead, R.G., Judd, W.S., Donoghue, M.J. & Soltis, P.S. 2011: Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa. – American Journal of Botany 98(4): 704-730. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1000404
P. Takhtajan, A. L. 1980: Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). – Botanical Review 46: 225–359