Editorial Guidelines and Conventions

Welcome to the editorial guidelines and conventions section of our Caryophyllales portal. This page outlines the standards and consistent practices we adhere to in compiling and presenting taxonomic data to ensure accuracy, clarity, and conformity to international standards in the field of plant taxonomy. 

Please cite this page as

The Caryophyllales Network 2024+: Editorial Guidelines and Conventions. – Published at https://caryophyllales.org/Editorial. Accessed on [access date]


Taxa and Names

Accepted Taxa

Taxa are included at the genus, species, and subspecies levels for all families. For some families, additional ranks such as subfamilies, tribes, or subgenera are provided.


Homotypic synonyms (names derived from the same type specimen as the accepted name) of a species are attributed to either the species name or the nominal subspecies, depending on the source. 

Heterotypic synonyms (names derived from different type specimens) that cannot be undoubtedly assigned to one of the subspecies are included in the synonymy of the species.

Invalid Designations

Names not validly published (not meeting the formal criteria set out in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants are listed at the end of the synonymies, indicated by an n-dash.

Spelling of Scientific Plant Names

The spelling of species epithets within a homotypical group is standardized, correcting typographical and orthographical errors as per Art. 60 of the Code. Original spellings are generally included. Common orthographic varianths or misspellings are included alongside correct spellings if they have been used in publications or online sources.

Authors of Scientific Plant Names

Authors are abbreviated following Brummitt & Powell's “Authors of Plant Names” and IPNI. If the authors of the name differ from the publication's authors, the latter are part of the bibliographic citation and not abbreviated. 'Ex' authors are included.

Nomenclatural Types of Names

Information on types is sourced from protologues, specimen labels or, if not accesible, from secondary literature. Types are classified as holo-, syn-, neo-, lectotypes, etc., and their duplicates as iso-, isosyn-, isoneo- or isolectotypes, etc. When no such specification is possible, they are indicated as "type". Herbarium codes follow Index Herbariorum.

Bibliographic Citation of Taxon Names

Titles of monographs are separated from the author citation by a comma and are abbreviated in conformity with Taxonomic literature, ed. 2 (Stafleu & Cowan 1976–1988; Stafleu & Mennega 1992–2000; Dorr & Nicolson 2008, 2009); the work's editor is not included in the title. 

Titles of serials are separated from the author citation by "in" and are abbreviated following the Botanico-periodicum-huntianum (Bridson & al. 2004, online edition) and the standards defined therein.

The actual year of publication is always used, with known discrepancies (e.g. between the year given in print and the real publication date) noted in square brackets.