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Physenaceae Takht. in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 70: 1692. 1985 sec. APG IV [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group] 20161 wfo-7000000465
      Type: Physena Noronha ex Thouars
  • 1. APG IV [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group] 2016: APG IV: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. – Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1-20..


A monogeneric family with two species endemic to Madagascar (Dickison 2003). Traditionally, the only genus Physena was placed in Capparales/Capparaceae (e.g. Pax & Hoffmann 1936) or Flacourtiaceae (e.g. Perrier de la Bâthie 1946). Later, it was considered as a family of its own and placed in the order Sapindales (e.g. Takhtajan 1980, 1987) and was then even transferred to the separate order Physenales (e.g. Takhtajan 1997). However, already the early molecular phylogenetic studies of Morton & al. (1997) showed the affinities of Physenaceae with Caryophyllales and its close relationship to Asteropeiaceae. These results were confirmed by subsequent molecular phylogenetic studies (e.g. Cuénoud & al. 2002; Brockington 2009, 2011; Soltis & al. 2011). The relationship between Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae is also supported by wood anatomical characters: further information under Asteropeiaceae.A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L


A. Brockington, S. F., Alexandre, R., Ramdial, J., Moore, M. J., Crawley, S., Dhingra, A., Hilu, K., Douglas, E. S. & Soltis, P.S. 2009: Phylogeny of the Caryophyllales sensu lato: Revisiting hypotheses on pollination biology and perianth differentiation in the core Caryophyllales. – International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(5): 627–643.
B. Brockington, S. F., Walker, R. H., Glover, R. H., Soltis, P.S. & Soltis, D.E. 2011: Complex pigment evolution in the Caryophyllales. – New Phytologist 190: 854 – 864.
C. Cuénoud, P. & al. 2002: Molecular phylogenetics of Caryophyllales based on nuclear 18S rDNA and plastid rbcL, atpB, and matK DNA sequences. – American Journal of Botany 89(1): 132-144.
D. Dickison, W. C. 2003: Physenaceae, 332 – 333. – In: Kubitzki, K. & Bayer, C. (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants 5. – Berlin, Heidelberg & New York: Springer
E. Hernández-Ledesma, P., Berendsohn, W. G., Borsch, T., von Mering, S., Akhani, H., Arias, S., Castañeda-Noa, I., Eggli, U., Eriksson, R., Flores-Olvera, H., Fuentes-Bazán, S., Kadereit, G., Klak, C., Korotkova, N., Nyffeler, R., Ocampo, G. & Ochoterena, H. 2015: A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. – Willdenowia 45(3): 281-383.
F. Morton, C. M., Karol, K. G. & Chase, M. W. 1997: Taxonomic affinities of Physena (Physenaceae) and Asteropeia (Theaceae). – Botanical Review 63: 231 – 239.
G. Pax, F. & Hoffmann, K. 1936: Capparidaceae, pp. 146–233. – In: Engler, A. & Prantl, K., Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 17b. – Leipzig: Engelmann
H. Perrier de la Bâthie, H. 1946: Flacourtiaceae, pp. 1–131. – In: Humbert, H., Flore de Madagascar et des Comores 140. – Tananarive & Paris: Muséum National d’histoire Naturelle
I. Soltis, D.E., Smith, S.A., Cellinese, N., Wurdack, K.J., Tank, D.C., Brockington, S.F., Refulio-Rodriguez, N.F., Walker, J.B., Moore, M.J., Carlsward, B.S., Bell, C.D., Latvis, M., Crawley, S., Black, C., Diouf, D., Xi, Z., Rushworth, C.A., Gitzendanner, M.A., Sytsma, K.J., Qiu, Y.-l., Hilu, K.W., Davis, C.C., Sanderson, M.J., Beaman, R.S., Olmstead, R.G., Judd, W.S., Donoghue, M.J. & Soltis, P.S. 2011: Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa. – American Journal of Botany 98(4): 704-730.
J. Takhtajan, A. L. 1980: Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). – Botanical Review 46: 225–359
K. Takhtajan, A. L. 1987: Systema magnoliophytorum / Система магнолиофитов. – Leningrad: Nauka
L. Takhtajan, A. L. 1997: Diversity and classification of flowering plants. – New York: Columbia University Press