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Sarcobataceae Behnke in Taxon 46(3): 503. 1997 sec. APG IV [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group] 20161
  • 1. APG IV [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group] 2016: APG IV: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. – Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1-20.


A monogeneric family with two species distributed in North America (Kühn 1993; Hils & al. 2003), from the western United States to northwest Mexico. The family includes shrubs characterised by having thorny branches, ebracteolate and unisexual flowers, the staminate flowers are arranged in spikes whereas the pistillate ones are solitary (Welsh & al. 2003).Traditionally, the only genus Sarcobatus Nees was placed in Chenopodiaceae (for a detailed taxonomic history until the nineties see Behnke 1997). The early molecular phylogenetic study by Downie & al. (1997) supported the position of Sarcobatus as an independent lineage. In this study, Sarcobatus showed a close relationship with members of Nyctaginaceae and Phytolaccaceae rather than Chenopodiaceae. Based on these results in addition to characters of the sieve-element plastids and some morphological characters, Behnke (1997) described the new family; nevertheless, some authors continued to treat the genus as part of Chenopodiaceae (e.g. Hils & al. 2003). The position of Sarcobatus as independent lineage was confirmed by other molecular phylogenetic studies (e.g. Cuénoud & al. 2002; Hilu & al. 2003; Brockington 2009, 2011; Soltis & al. 2011; Schäferhoff & al. 2010) which showed a close but only moderately supported relationship of the family with Agdestidaceae.A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L


A. Behnke, H.-D. 1997: Sarcobataceae. A new family of Caryophyllales. – Taxon 46(3): 495-507
B. Brockington, S. F., Alexandre, R., Ramdial, J., Moore, M. J., Crawley, S., Dhingra, A., Hilu, K., Douglas, E. S. & Soltis, P.S. 2009: Phylogeny of the Caryophyllales sensu lato: Revisiting hypotheses on pollination biology and perianth differentiation in the core Caryophyllales. – International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(5): 627–643.
C. Brockington, S. F., Walker, R. H., Glover, R. H., Soltis, P.S. & Soltis, D.E. 2011: Complex pigment evolution in the Caryophyllales. – New Phytologist 190: 854 – 864.|
D. Cuénoud, P. & al. 2002: Molecular phylogenetics of Caryophyllales based on nuclear 18S rDNA and plastid rbcL, atpB, and matK DNA sequences. – American Journal of Botany 89(1): 132-144.
E. Downie, S. R., Katz-Downie, D. S. & Cho, K.-J. 1997: Relationships in the Caryophyllales as suggested by phylogenetic analyses of partial chloroplast DNA ORF2280 homolog sequences. – American Journal of Botany 84: 253-273.
F. Hernández-Ledesma, P., Berendsohn, W. G., Borsch, T., von Mering, S., Akhani, H., Arias, S., Castañeda-Noa, I., Eggli, U., Eriksson, R., Flores-Olvera, H., Fuentes-Bazán, S., Kadereit, G., Klak, C., Korotkova, N., Nyffeler, R., Ocampo, G. & Ochoterena, H. 2015: A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. – Willdenowia 45(3): 281-383.
G. Hils, M. H., Thieret, J. W. & Morefield, J. D. 2003: Sarcobatus, 387 – 389. – In: Flora of North America north of Mexico 4. – New York: Oxford University Press
H. Hilu, K., Müller, K. F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Savolainen, V., Chase, M. W., Powell, M. P., Lawrence, Alice, Evans, R. C., Sauquet, H., Neinhuis, C., Slotta, T., Rohwer, J. G., Campbell, C. S. & Chatrou, L. 2003: Angiosperm phylogeny based on matK sequence information. – American Journal of Botany 90: 1758 – 1776.
I. Kühn, U. 1993: Chenopodiaceae, pp. 253-281. – In: Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J.G. & Bittrich, V. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants 2. – Berlin, Heidelberg & New York: Springer
J. Schäferhoff, B., Müller, K.F. & Borsch, T. 2010: Caryophyllales phylogenetics: disentangling Phytolaccaceae and Molluginaceae and description of Microteaceae as a new isolated family. – Willdenowia 39: 209-228.
K. Soltis, D.E., Smith, S.A., Cellinese, N., Wurdack, K.J., Tank, D.C., Brockington, S.F., Refulio-Rodriguez, N.F., Walker, J.B., Moore, M.J., Carlsward, B.S., Bell, C.D., Latvis, M., Crawley, S., Black, C., Diouf, D., Xi, Z., Rushworth, C.A., Gitzendanner, M.A., Sytsma, K.J., Qiu, Y.-l., Hilu, K.W., Davis, C.C., Sanderson, M.J., Beaman, R.S., Olmstead, R.G., Judd, W.S., Donoghue, M.J. & Soltis, P.S. 2011: Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa. – American Journal of Botany 98(4): 704-730.
L. Welsh, S. L., Crompton, C. W. & Clemants, S. E. 2003: Chenopodiaceae, pp. 258–404. – In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, Flora of North America north of Mexico 4. – New York: Oxford University Press