Caroxylon, Nov. Gen. Pl. 2: 37. 1782 sec. Akhani & al. (2007)
- ≡Salsola sect. Caroxylon, Nov. Gen. 2: 37. 1782 syn. sec. Müller & Borsch (2005)
- Type: Caroxylon aphyllum
- =Salsola sect. Cardiandra in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 28: 32. 1967 syn. sec. Müller & Borsch (2005)
- =Salsola sect. Malpighipila in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 54: 990. 1969 syn. sec. Müller & Borsch (2005)
- =Salsola sect. Irania in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 71: 1400. 1986 syn. sec. Müller & Borsch (2005)
The genus Caroxylon was resurrected by Tzvelev (1993) and then confirmed and re-circumscribed based on molecular and morphological evidence (Akhani & al. 2007). In that circumscription, it is the most diverse genus in Salsoloideae with c. 100 species distributed in Central and Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean region, North and South Africa (Feodorova 2011). Feodorova and Samigullin (2014) revealed four clades within Caroxylon s.l. and provisionally advocated further splitting of the genus, with recognition of a re-circumscribed Nitrosalsola Tzvelev, Caroxylon s.str., and possiblye two other segregate genera, based on molecular and morphological evidence.