Turbinicarpus

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Turbinicarpus

Turbinicarpus (Backeb.) Buxb. & Backeb. in Cactaceae (Berlin) 1937(1): 27. 1937 sec. Vázquez-Sánchez & al. 20191 wfo-4000039593
  • Strombocactus subg. Turbinicarpus Backeb. in Blätt. Kakteenf. 1936(1): 8. 1936 syn. sec. Vázquez-Sánchez & al. 20191 wfo-3500004014
    • Nametype: Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus (Boed.) Buxb. & Backeb.
  • 1. Vázquez-Sánchez, Sánchez, D., Terrazas, T., De La Rosa-Tilapa, A. & Arias, S. 2019: Polyphyly of the iconic cactus genus Turbinicarpus (Cactaceae) and its generic circumscription. – Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 190(4): 405-420. 10.1093/botlinnean/boz027
  • =Gymnocactus Backeb. in Blätt. Kakteenf. 1938(6): 22. 1938 syn. sec. Hunt 20062 wfo-4000016451
    • Nametype: Gymnocactus saueri (Boed.) Backeb.
  • 2. Hunt, D.R. 2006: The New Cactus Lexicon. – Milborne Port: dh books
  • =Normanbokea Kladiwa & Buxb., Kakteen 40-41: C VIIIb. 1969 syn. sec. Hunt 20063 wfo-4000026228
    • Nametype: Normanbokea valdeziana (H.Moeller) Kladiwa & Buxb.
  • 3. Hunt, D.R. 2006: The New Cactus Lexicon. – Milborne Port: dh books
  • =Pseudosolisia Y.Itô, Cactaceae: 477. 1981 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)4 wfo-4000031697
    • Nametype: Pseudosolisia valdeziana (H.Moeller) Y.Itô
  • 4. Kew WCVP (2019)

Notes

Turbinicarpus was found to be polyphyletic in the molecular studies of Bárcenas & al. (2011) and Hernández-Hernández & al. (2011). The most comprehensively sampled dataset of Vázquez-Sánchez & al. (2013) showed Turbinicarpus to fall into three separate clades. Recent studies have clarified the circumscription of Turbinicarpus. Anatomically, Turbinicarpus and Kadenicapus clades share the presence of prismatic crystals in the hypodermis, while Rapicactus has prismatic druses, and Turbinicarpus differs from Kadenicarpus by the absence of xylary fibers in the cortical bundles (De la Rosa-Tilapa & al 2019). The phylogenetic study performed by Vázquez-Sánchez et al. (2019) showed the Turbinicarpus s.s. clade strogly supported as monophyletic, and sister to Ariocarpus. Three independent genera are thus accepted: Kadenicarpus, Rapicactus (see their respective treatments), and Turbinicarpus. The number of species has been a matter of discussion. In this treatment, 23 species, 15 subspecies, two natural hybrids and 33 artificial hybrids are recognized. Furthermore, three taxonomic complexes are recognized: the Turbinicarpus saueri, T. schmiedickeanus and T. viereckii complexes (see the respective treatments). The recognition of the species proposed here is based on general works focused on the genus, therefore, systematic work is required to solve this problem.A,B,C,D,E,F

Taxon standing

Category B. The genus is monophyletic based on phylogenetic studies that support the clade based on a sufficiently dense or even complete sampling, or support a monotypic genus as a distinct lineage, but do not provide a new taxonomic treatment at the species level. In many cases, older classical taxonomic synopses or a monographic treatment exist for these genera providing a reliable assessment of the species included.

Acknowledgments

Revised by David Aquino

Bibliography

A. Aquino, D. 2021: Revisions of Epithelantha, Kadenicarpus, Rapicactus, Turbinicarpus – In: Korotkova N. & al., Cactaceae at Caryophyllales.org – a dynamic online species-level taxonomic backbone for the family. – Willdenowia 51: 251-270. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.51.51208
B. Bárcenas, R.T., Yesson, C. & Hawkins, J. A. 2011: Molecular systematics of the Cactaceae. – Cladistics 27: 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00350.x
C. De la Rosa-Tilapa, A., Vázquez-Sánchez, M. & Terrazas, T. 2019: Stem anatomy of Turbinicarpus s.l. (Cacteae, Cactaceae) and its contribution to systematics. – Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology 153(4): 600-609. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2018.1527791
D. Hernández-Hernández, T., Hernández, H.M., De-Nova, J. A., Puente, R., Eguiarte, L.E. & Magallón, S. 2011: Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of growth form in Cactaceae (Caryophyllales, Eudicotyledoneae). – American Journal of Botany 98(1): 44-61. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1000129
E. Vázquez-Sánchez, Sánchez, D., Terrazas, T., De La Rosa-Tilapa, A. & Arias, S. 2019: Polyphyly of the iconic cactus genus Turbinicarpus (Cactaceae) and its generic circumscription. – Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 190(4): 405-420. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean%2fboz027
F. Vázquez-Sánchez, Terrazas, T., Arias, S. & Ochoterena, H. 2013: Molecular phylogeny, origin and taxonomic implications of the tribe Cacteae (Cactaceae). – Systematics and Biodiversity 11(1): 103-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/14772000.2013.775191