Mammillaria

Primary tabs

Mammillaria

Mammillaria Haw., Syn. Pl. Succ.: 177. 1812, nom. cons. sec. Hunt 20161 wfo-4000022997
  • Neomammillaria Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 65. 1923 syn. sec. Hunt 20161 wfo-4000025760
    • Nametype: Mammillaria simplex Haw., nom. cons.
  • 1. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Mammillaria subg. Dolichothele K.Schum., Gesamtbeschr. Kakt.: 506. 1897–1899 syn. sec. Hunt 20162 wfo-3500004016
  • Dolichothele (K.Schum.) Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 61. 1923 syn. sec. Hunt 20162 wfo-4000012377
    • Nametype: Dolichothele longimamma (DC.) Britton & Rose
  • 2. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Mammariella Shafer in Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 13: 139. 1913 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)3 wfo-4000042536
  • 3. Kew WCVP (2019)
  • =Bartschella Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 57. 1923 syn. sec. Hunt 20164 wfo-4000004158
    • Nametype: Bartschella schumannii (Hildm.) Britton & Rose
  • 4. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Mamillopsis Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 19. 1923 syn. sec. Hunt 20165 wfo-4000022993
    • Nametype: Mamillopsis senilis (Lodd. ex Salm-Dyck) F.A.C.Weber ex Britton & Rose
  • 5. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Phellosperma Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 60. 1923 syn. sec. Hunt 20166 wfo-4000029182
    • Nametype: Phellosperma tetrancistra (Engelm.) Britton & Rose
  • 6. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Solisia Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 64. 1923 syn. sec. Hunt 20167 wfo-4000035735
    • Nametype: Solisia pectinata (Stein) Britton & Rose
  • 7. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Lactomamillaria Frič in Ceskoslov. Zahradn. Listy 1924: 133. 1924 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)8 wfo-4000042532
  • 8. Kew WCVP (2019)
  • =Haagea Frič in Život v Přír. 29: 36–37. 1925, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)9 wfo-4000016629
  • 9. Kew WCVP (2019)
  • =Chilita Orcutt in Cactography 2. 1926 syn. sec. Hunt 201610 wfo-4000007870
    • Nametype: Chilita grahamii Orcutt
  • 10. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Porfiria Boed. in Z. Sukkulentenk. 2(13). 1926 syn. sec. Hunt 201611 wfo-4000030936
    • Nametype: Porfiria coahuilensis Boed.
  • 11. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Krainzia Backeb. in Blätt. Kakteenf. 1938(6): 11, 22, genus 174. 1938 syn. sec. Hunt 201612 wfo-4000020205
    • Nametype: Krainzia longiflora (Britton & Rose) Backeb.
  • 12. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Ebnerella Buxb. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 98: 88. 1951 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)13 wfo-4000012871
  • 13. Kew WCVP (2019)
  • =Leptocladia Buxb. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 98: 82. 1951 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)14 wfo-4000021245
  • 14. Kew WCVP (2019)
  • =Mammilloydia Buxb. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 98: 64. 1951 syn. sec. Hunt 201615 wfo-4000022998
    • Nametype: Mammilloydia candida (Scheidw.) Buxb.
  • 15. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Oehmea Buxb. in Sukkulentenkunde 4: 17. 1951 syn. sec. Hunt 201616 wfo-4000026644
    • Nametype: Oehmea nelsonii (Britton & Rose) Buxb.
  • 16. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Pseudomammillaria Buxb. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 98: 84. 1951 syn. sec. Hunt 201617 wfo-4000031586
    • Nametype: Pseudomammillaria camptotricha (Dams) Buxb.
  • 17. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Leptocladodia Buxb. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 101. 1954 syn. sec. Hunt 201618 wfo-4000021248
    • Nametype: Leptocladodia elongata (DC.) Buxb.
  • 18. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • =Escobariopsis Doweld in Sukkulenty 3(1-2): 23. 2000 syn. sec. Hunt 201619 wfo-4000014029
    • Nametype: Escobariopsis prolifera (Mill.) Doweld
  • 19. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author
  • Cactus L., Sp. Pl.: 466. 1753, nom. rej. syn. sec. Hunt 201620 wfo-4000005891
    • Nametype: Cactus mammillaris L.
  • 20. Hunt, D.R. 2016: CITES Cactaceae Checklist. 3rd edition. – published by the author

Notes

Mammillaria is the largest genus within Cactaceae, and numerous suggestions for infrageneric entities have been proposed, often then segregated as different genera; the different taxonomic concepts were summarized by Butterworth & Wallace (2004). Although several phylogenetic studies dealing with the genus and allies have been published, there are still many uncertainties that result from insufficient phylogenetic resolution and support.
Mammillaria was studied in detail using data from the plastid rpl16 intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer by Butterworth & Wallace (2004), who sampled about 4/5 of the accepted species, and Bárcenas & al. (2011) for trnK/matK compiled an even more extensive sampling.
Mammillaria was also included in the phylogenetic studies of the tribe Cacteae by Butterworth & al. (2002) and Vázquez-Sánchez & al. (2013), though with much fewer species sampled.
The first sequence data already hinted to a non-monophyly of Mammillaria (Butterworth & al. 2002), yet without support. The results of Butterworth & Wallace (2004), based on a detailed sampling, again suggested polyphyly of Mammillaria. The genera Pelecyphora, Coryphantha, Escobaria, Ortegocactus, Mammilloydia and Neolloydia were found nested in a maximally supported Mammillaria s.l. clade. Bárcenas & al. (2011) did not find sufficient support a monophyletic Mammillaria, and Coryphantha (likewise polyphyletic), Ortegocactus and Escobaria were nested in different Mammillaria clades. Vázquez-Sánchez & al. (2013) found that Mammillaria and Coryphantha could be separate clades, yet Mammillaria was supported as monophyletic only in the parsimony tree (61% BS/78% JK) but not found as monophyletic by Bayesian Inference. A clade of Coryphantha incl. Neolloydia was maximally supported in the parsimony and Bayesian trees, but C. macromeris (Engelm.) Lem. fell outside that clade, suggesting that Coryphantha is likewise polyphyletic. Escobaria was found polyphyletic as well (Vázquez-Sánchez & al. 2013), but only few species have been sampled. The results of Vázquez-Sánchez & al. (2013) also did provide some insights on generic limits in the whole assemblage, as well as taxonomic changes by segregating Cochemiea from Mammillaria, and Cumarinia from Coryphantha.
Mammilloydia was found nested in Mammillaria (Butterworth & al. 2002; Butterworth & Wallace 2004; Bárcenas & al. 2011; Vázquez-Sánchez & al. 2013) and all authors argue Mammilloydia should therefore no longer be recognized at generic rank. The Mammillaria assemblage therefore remains one of the Cactaceae groups that need further detailed study. Some nodes were so far weakly supported, and final conclusions regarding the monophyly and generic limits of Mammillara must await a more extensive sampling, especially for Coryphantha and Escobaria, until firm taxonomic and nomenclatural conclusions are possible.A,B,C,D,E

Taxon standing

Category B. The genus is monophyletic based on phylogenetic studies that support the clade based on a sufficiently dense or even complete sampling, or support a monotypic genus as a distinct lineage, but do not provide a new taxonomic treatment at the species level. In many cases, older classical taxonomic synopses or a monographic treatment exist for these genera providing a reliable assessment of the species included.

Acknowledgments

Revised by Carlos Gómez-Hinostrosa & Héctor M. Hernández

Bibliography

A. Butterworth, C. A. & Wallace, R.S. 2004: Phylogenetic studies of Mammillaria (Cactaceae) - insights from chloroplast sequence variation and hypothesis testing using the parametric bootstrap. – American Journal of Botany 91(7): 1086-1098
B. Butterworth, C. A., Cota-Sanchez, J. H. & Wallace, R. S. 2002: Molecular systematics of tribe Cacteae (Cactaceae: Cactoideae): A phylogeny based on rpl16 intron sequence variation. – Systematic Botany 27(2): 257-270. https://doi.org/10.1043/0363-6445-27.2.257
C. Bárcenas, R.T., Yesson, C. & Hawkins, J. A. 2011: Molecular systematics of the Cactaceae. – Cladistics 27: 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00350.x
D. Hernández-Ledesma, P., Berendsohn, W. G., Borsch, T., von Mering, S., Akhani, H., Arias, S., Castañeda-Noa, I., Eggli, U., Eriksson, R., Flores-Olvera, H., Fuentes-Bazán, S., Kadereit, G., Klak, C., Korotkova, N., Nyffeler, R., Ocampo, G. & Ochoterena, H. 2015: A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. – Willdenowia 45(3): 281-383. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.45.45301
E. Vázquez-Sánchez, Terrazas, T., Arias, S. & Ochoterena, H. 2013: Molecular phylogeny, origin and taxonomic implications of the tribe Cacteae (Cactaceae). – Systematics and Biodiversity 11(1): 103-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/14772000.2013.775191